Food insecurity increased substantially in the USA during the early stages of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this study was to identify potential sociodemographic and food access-related factors that were associated with continuing or transitioning into food insecurity in a diverse population. An electronic survey was completed by 367 households living in low-income communities in Central Texas during June-July 2020. Multinomial logistic regression models were developed to examine the associations among food insecurity transitions during COVID-19 and various sociodemographic and food access-related factors, including race/ethnicity, children in the household, loss of employment/wages, language, and issues with food availability, accessibility, affordability, and stability during the pandemic. Sociodemographic and food access-related factors associated with staying or becoming newly food insecure were similar but not identical. Having children in the household, changes in employment/wages, changing shopping location due to food availability, accessibility and/or affordability issues, issues with food availability, and stability of food supply were associated with becoming newly food insecure and staying food insecure during the pandemic. Identifying as Latino and/or Black was associated with staying food insecure during COVID-19. These findings suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic did not create new food insecurity disparities. Rather, the pandemic exacerbated pre-existing disparities.