This study investigated factors associated with child mortality in an area in Rawalpindi, one of the large cities of Pakistan. Using both demographic and anthropological methods, the research was conducted to specifically examine the process and mechanisms whereby a link is established between child mortality and its covariates. Controlling for the socioeconomic status as a determinant of child mortality, the study population was limited to a lower income stratum living in a homogeneous environment where all households had equal access to health-related and other facilities. Results of the proportional hazards model analysis on 1301 index children suggest that non-economic factors like maternal health-seeking behavior were related to high child mortality. The cultural norm of bearing a large number of children was the most significant correlate. In order of significance, this was followed by contraceptive use, current age of the mother, age at marriage, and the hygienic conditions of the household. The study provides strong evidence of familial clustering of mortality by order of the household.