To determine level of alcohol use/misuse and to examine correlates of these behaviors, 1,314 fourth-grade students were surveyed. The questionnaire included 55 items concerning tolerance of deviance, deviant self-image, self-efficacy, susceptibility to peer pressure, personal and peer approval of alcohol use, peer adjustment, parent nurturance and monitoring, family adjustment, parental permissiveness, peer use of alcohol, and exposure to alcohol. The items were factor analyzed and indices constructed. The indices generally had acceptable alpha coefficients (alpha = .61-.91); two exceptions were peer adjustment (alpha = .51) and parental permissiveness (alpha = .42). Tolerance of deviance, deviant self-image, susceptibility to peer pressure, personal and peer approval, peer use and exposure by peers, and parental permissiveness were positively correlated with alcohol use/misuse. Self-efficacy, child-parent interactions, family adjustment, and peer adjustment were negatively correlated with alcohol use/misuse. Implications for the design of family-based alcohol use/misuse prevention programs are discussed.