The relationship between oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) [NAD(P)+] transhydrogenase (EC 18.104.22.168) and NAD(P)+ glutamate dehydrogenase in several enteric bacteria which differ slightly in their regulation of nitrogen metabolism was studied. Escherichia coli strain K-12 was grown on glucose and various concentrations of NH4Cl as the sole nitrogen source. In the range of 0.5 to 20 mM NH4Cl, the energy-independent transhydrogenase increased two to threefold. Comparable changes occurred in NAD(P)+-linked glutamate dehydrogenase. NH4Cl concentrations of 20 to 60 mM resulted in relatively constant specific activities for both enzymes. Higher exogenous NH4Cl, however, led to a decline in both activities. Isocitrate dehydrogenase, another potential source of cellular NADPH, was insensitive to NH4Cl limitation. Similar studies in the presence of glutamate and different exogenous NH4Cl concentrations again showed concerted effects on both enzymes. Growth on glutamate as the sole nitrogen source led to severe repression of both transhydrogenase and glutamate dehydrogenase. In Salmonella typhimurium, both enzymes were unaffected by limiting NH4Cl or growth on glutamate as the sole nitrogen source. Both were, however, repressed by growth on aspartate, a potential source of cellular glutamate. Coordinate changes in glutamate dehydrogenase and transhydrogenase were also evident in Klebsiella aerogenes, particularly under conditions in which glutamate dehydrogenase was regulated inversely to glutamate synthetase. Coordinate changes in glutamate dehydrogenase and transhydrogenase in enteric bacteria are discussed in terms of the possible involvement of the latter enzyme as a direct source of NADPH in the ammonia assimilation system.