The aim of experiment was to analyse the structural transformations and changes in mechanical properties of K720 steel during heat treatment (quenching). Three types of cooling medium were selected. The heating parameters and subsequent delays at the recrystallisation temperature were the same for all samples and were observed in a laboratory furnace. Water with the highest cooling capacity was selected as the benchmark cooling medium. Subsequently, the hardening oil TK – 46 was used. Sunflower oil was selected as the last quenching medium, which can be considered an ecological replacement of quenching oil with possibility of biological disposal. The microstructure and microhardness of individual samples were subjected to a metallographic evaluation and evaluated according to ČSN EN ISO 6507, respectively. The impact toughness analysis was performed according to the ČSN EN ISO 148-1 and a three-point bending test was performed according to ČSN EN ISO 7438. This test specifies a method for determining the ability of metallic materials to undergo plastic deformation in bending. The bend test includes subjection of round, square, rectangular or polygonal cross-section to plastic deformation by bending, without changing the direction of loading, until the specified angle of bend is reached.