Betablockers are one of the most successful drug classes in cardiology. They have many indications - starting with treatment of arterial hypertension, continuing with secondary prevention post myocardial infarction up to the treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Recently, many analysis and information were published which are questioning yet unshakable role of betablockers in some cardiovascular diagnosis. This review article summarizes the controversies, which have accumulated around betablockers in the treatment of hypertension, secondary prevention of coronary artery disease, perioperative administration in patients undegoing non-cardiac surgery and treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Some of these controversies already led to guidelines modifications, other will probably lead to guidelines changes in near future.Key words: arterial hypertension - betablockers - heart failure - perioperative care - secondary prevention.