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Controlling the physical parameters of crystalline CIGS nanowires for use in superstrate configuration using vapor phase epitaxy

  • Lee, Dongjin1
  • Jeon, H. C.1
  • Kang, T. W.2
  • Kumar, Sunil2
  • 1 Dongguk University-Seoul, Quantum Functional Semiconductor Research Center, Jung-Gu, Seoul, 100715, South Korea , Seoul (South Korea)
  • 2 Dongguk University-Seoul, Nano Information Technology Academy, Jung-Gu, Seoul, 100715, South Korea , Seoul (South Korea)
Published Article
Applied Nanoscience
Springer International Publishing
Publication Date
Mar 19, 2018
DOI: 10.1007/s13204-018-0724-x
Springer Nature


Indium tin oxide (ITO) is a suitable candidate for smart windows and bifacial semi-transparent solar cell applications. In this study, highly crystalline CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) nanowires were successfully grown by horizontal-type vapor phase epitaxy on an ITO substrate. Length, diameter, and density of the nanowires were studied by varying the growth temperature (500, 520, and 560 °C), time (3.5, 6.5, and 9.5 h), and type of catalyst (In, Au, and Ga). Length, diameter, and density of the nanowires were found to be highly dependent on the growth conditions. At an optimized growth period and temperature of 3.5 h and 520 °C, respectively, the length and diameter of the nanowires were found to increase when grown in a catalyst-free environment. However, the density of the nanowires was found to be higher while using a catalyst during growth. Even in a catalyst-free environment, an Indium cluster formed at the bottom of the nanowires. The source of these nanowires is believed to be Indium from the ITO substrate which was observed in the EDS measurement. TEM-based EDS and line EDS indicated that the nanowires are made up of CIGS material with a very low Gallium content. XRD measurements also show the appearance of wurtzite CIS nanowires grown on ITO in addition to the chalcopyrite phase. PL spectroscopy was done to see the near-band-edge emission for finding band-to-band optical transition in this material. Optical response of the CIGS nanowire network was also studied to see the photovoltaic effect. This work creates opportunities for making real solar cell devices in superstrate configuration.

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