Posttranscriptional control of mRNA regulates various biological processes, including inflammatory and immune responses. RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) bind cis-regulatory elements in the 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of mRNA and regulate mRNA turnover and translation. In particular, eight RBPs (TTP, AUF1, KSRP, TIA-1/TIAR, Roquin, Regnase, HuR, and Arid5a) have been extensively studied and are key posttranscriptional regulators of inflammation and immune responses. These RBPs sometimes collaboratively or competitively bind the same target mRNA to enhance or dampen regulatory activities. These RBPs can also bind their own 3′ UTRs to negatively or positively regulate their expression. Both upstream signaling pathways and microRNA regulation shape the interactions between RBPs and target RNA. Dysregulation of RBPs results in chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. Here, we summarize the functional roles of these eight RBPs in immunity and their associated diseases.