Bacteria and other microorganisms have a natural tendency to adhere to surfaces as a survival mechanism. This can occur in many environments, including the living host, industrial systems, and natural waters. The general outcome of bacterial colonization of a surface is biofilm formation, which consists of microorganisms immobilized in a variety of polymeric compounds generally referred to as extracellular polymeric substances. Bacterial adhesion to a solid surface is a crucial step in the biofilm process. This step is dependent upon van der Waals, electrostatic, and acid–base interactions. These interactions are influenced by physicochemical properties of the substratum and the bacterial surface, such as hydrophobicity, surface charge, and electron donor–electron acceptor properties. In addition, the roughness of the substratum and the microbiological characteristics of the cell surface, such as cellular appendages and production of exopolysaccharides, can affect the adherence process. To date, many strategies have been developed to decrease the adherence of bacteria to surfaces. Surface modification with the addition of the suitable compounds makes surfaces less attractive for microorganisms and therefore prevents bacterial adherence and biofilm formation.