Invasive Salmonella disease in Africa is a major public health concern. With evidence of the transcontinental spread of the Salmonella Typhi H58 haplotype, improved estimates of the burden of infection and understanding of the complex interplay of factors affecting disease transmission are needed to assist with efforts aimed at disease control. In addition to Salmonella Typhi, invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella are increasingly recognized as an important cause of febrile illness and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Human experimental oral challenge studies with Salmonella can be used as a model to offer unique insights into host–pathogen interactions as well as a platform to efficiently test new diagnostic and vaccine candidates. In this article, we review the background and use of human challenge studies to date and discuss how findings from these studies may lead to progress in the control of invasive Salmonella disease in Africa.