During the past 30 years three major programmes of research have been carried out in Myanmar (Burma) and India on the ecology and control of Culex quinquefasciatus. To differing degrees the programmes have employed environmental, chemical, biological and genetic control strategies, but none has been an unqualified success. Results have been good when well-trained staff with substantial resources were employed, but much poorer when less-well-equipped general health workers took over the programmes. Overall, it would seem most cost-effective for health workers to concentrate their efforts on the elimination of the limited number of larval habitat categories which commonly contribute a large fraction of the adult population. Insecticides and biological control agents should serve as supplements, not as alternatives, to environmental management. Genetic control strategies have currently no place in C. quinquefasciatus programmes.