Our knowledge on the functional anatomy of bacteria is based on the electron microscopic (EM) studies performed during the last forty years. Most pathogenic properties however cannot be visualized in EM because they are not related to defined structures. In contrast, EM studies have provided important data on the behaviour of pathogenic bacteria in their host cells. They have shown that many bacterial species have developed different stratagems to survive and multiply in their host cell. Some are even able to use the host cell machinery to move and invade adjacent cells.