Evidence reported in recent decades increasingly confirms that both the cerebellum and the basal ganglia, which are primarily involved in movement control, also have a significant role in a vast range of cognitive and affective functions. Evidence from pathology indicates that the disorders of some aspects of language production which follow damage of the cerebellum or respectively basal ganglia, i.e., disorders of speech, word fluency, and sentence construction, have identifiable neuropsychological profiles and that most manifestations can be specifically attributed to the dysfunctions of mechanisms supported by one or the other of these structures. The cerebellum and the basal ganglia are reciprocally interconnected. Thus, it is plausible that some disorders observed when damage involves one of these structures could be remote effects of abnormal activity in the other. However, in a purely clinical-neuropsychological perspective, primary and remote effects in the network are difficult to disentangle. Functional neuroimaging and non-invasive brain stimulation techniques likely represent the indispensable support for achieving this goal.