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Continuous spike and waves during sleep and electrical status epilepticus in sleep.

Authors
  • Loddenkemper, Tobias
  • Fernández, Iván Sánchez
  • Peters, Jurriaan M
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology
Publisher
Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer) - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Publication Date
Apr 01, 2011
Volume
28
Issue
2
Pages
154–164
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1097/WNP.0b013e31821213eb
PMID: 21399511
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

Continuous spike and waves during sleep is an age-related epileptic encephalopathy that presents with neurocognitive regression, seizures, and an EEG pattern of electrical status epilepticus during sleep. Patients usually present around 5 years of age with infrequent nocturnal unilateral motor seizures that progress within 1 to 2 years to a severe epileptic encephalopathy with frequent seizures of different types, marked neurocognitive regression, and an almost continuous spike-wave EEG pattern during slow-wave sleep. The pathophysiology of continuous spike and waves during sleep is not completely understood, but the corticothalamic neuronal network involved in physiologic oscillating patterns of sleep is thought to be switched into a pathologic discharging mode. Early developmental injury and/or genetic predisposition may play a role in the potentiation of age-related hyperexcitability in the immature brain. A better understanding of the mechanisms leading to electrical status epilepticus during sleep may provide additional therapeutic targets that can improve the outcome of seizures, EEG pattern, and cognitive development in patients with continuous spike and waves during sleep.

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