Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) gives rise to substantial structural changes in the respiratory tract and lungs with the development of chronic inflammation and bronchiolitis, as well as pulmonary parenchymatous destruction and the formation of emphysema. The listed changes substantiate the development of new treatment techniques, which will help correct structural changes in the respiratory tract and will slow down or even reverse progressive worsening of the respiratory function. In the future, the development of blood and/or saliva infection of inflammation biomarkers (e.g. endogenic protease inhibitors, antioxidants, cytokines etc.) will make it possible to find valuable diagnostic signs of forthcoming exacerbation, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of new therapeutic techniques in clinical studies. COPD, or chronic bronchitis, airway obstruction, and emphysema, should be considered among pathological processes which result in smoking-induced chronic system inflammatory syndrome including cardiovascular diseases, metabolic disorder, and cancer. Possibly, treatment with new preparations, directed towards treating the patient as a whole rather than separate COPD symptoms, will be developed in the future.