This work aims to demonstrate the ruptures and resistances encountered by the new epistemological currents, namely postmodernity and its correlative neologisms concerning the investigation of the modern epistemological currents. In this sense, the general objective of this thesis is to present the ideas that created the historical, social and epistemological theories responsible for a certain type of social thought used to understand modern society and its values. This thesis will then highlight the new ideas that have transformed the outlook of “classical” modernity which now demands original and explanatory discourses. For this reason, and methodologically, a bibliographical survey of the historic and epistemological practices, that we usually credit to the social construction of modernity and its probable overcoming, postmodernity, is conducted. Thus, this work also seeks to contribute to the explanation of the socio-cultural and epistemological distinctions and changes responsible for the judgement that the modern individual has of himself and society, compared with the perspective that the contemporary subject attributes to his identity and social relationships. Thus, through a systematic bibliographical analyze and historical comparison, the value of this research lies in the possibility of confrontation between social ideas and practices which have become more common, which have lost their influence or which have emerged in contemporaneity, defying the precepts prevailing within the social science´s policies. Above all, to defend that the modern project of emancipation and regulation of social life is still valid and that the reason for its questioning lies in the overlap of capitalist development and instrumental and technical reason over the paradigms of democratic political action and emancipatory culture proposed by the first moderns.