Xenobiotic nuclear receptors (NR) are intracellular players involved in an increasing number of physiological processes. Examined and characterized in peripheral organs where they govern metabolic, transport and detoxification mechanisms, accumulating data suggest a functional expression of specific NR at the neurovascular unit (NVU). Here, we focus on the Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR), expressed in detoxifying organs such as the liver, intestines and kidneys. By direct and indirect activation, CAR is implicated in hepatic detoxification of xenobiotics, environmental contaminants, and endogenous molecules (bilirubin, bile acids). Importantly, CAR participates in physiological stress adaptation responses, hormonal and energy homeostasis due to glucose and lipid sensing. We next analyze the emerging evidence supporting a role of CAR in NVU cells including the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a key vascular interface regulating communications between the brain and the periphery. We address the emerging concept of how CAR may regulate specific P450 cytochromes at the NVU and the associated relevance to brain diseases. A clear understanding of how CAR engages during pathological conditions could enable new mechanistic, and perhaps pharmacological, entry-points within a peripheral-brain axis.