Anatomical tracers were injected into electrophysiologically defined sites in somatosensory cortical Area 3b (SI proper) and Area I (posterior cutaneous field) of owl monkeys after these cortical subdivisions had been extensively explored in microelectrode mapping experiments. These mapping experiments revealed that both Areas 3b and 1 contain complete and separate representations of the body surface (Merzenich et al., '78). Restricted injections of the retrograde tracer, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), into either Area 3b or Area 1 labeled neurons within a band of cells in the ventroposterior nucleus (VP). The location of the labeled band in VP varied with the location of the injection site in both representations, and the labeled region of VP was overlapping for injections in corresponding body parts in the two representations. Neurons projecting to the hand and foot cortical representations were in architectonically identified subnuclei. Because injections into either Area 3b or Area 1 labeled over half of the neurons in the appropriate regions of VP, it appears that some neurons in VP project to both cortical representations. Finally, injections of HRP combined with the anterograde tracer, 3H-proline, indicate that VP neurons are reciprocally interconnected with both Areas 3b and 1.