Biofilm formation is a complex process resulting from the action of imbricated pathways in response to environmental cues. In this study, we showed that biofilm biogenesis in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa depends on the availability of RpoS, the sigma factor regulating the general stress response in bacteria. Moreover, it was demonstrated that RpoS is post-translationally regulated by the HsbR-HsbA partner switching system as has been demonstrated for its CrsR-CrsA homolog in Shewanella oneidensis. Finally, it was established that HsbA, the anti-sigma factor antagonist, has a pivotal role depending on its phosphorylation state since it binds HsbR, the response regulator, when phosphorylated and FlgM, the anti-sigma factor of FliA, when non-phosphorylated. The phosphorylation state of HsbA thus drives the switch between the sessile and planktonic way of life of P. aeruginosa by driving the release or the sequestration of one or the other of these two sigma factors.