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Conformational determinants of the intracellular localization of midkine.

Authors
  • Dai, Licheng
  • Dai, Lichen
  • Xu, Diyong
  • Yao, Xing
  • Lu, Yongliang
  • Xu, Zhengping
Type
Published Article
Journal
Biochemical and biophysical research communications
Publication Date
Apr 29, 2005
Volume
330
Issue
1
Pages
310–317
Identifiers
PMID: 15781266
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

Midkine (MK) is a multifunctional growth factor and has been discovered to play important roles in carcinogenesis. MK has been reported to localize to the nucleus and nucleolus, however, the data are not consistent and the signals responsible for the localization are unknown. Here we reported that human MK exclusively localized to the nucleus and nucleolus in HepG2 cells by using GFP as a tracking molecule. In order to identify the motifs required for the nuclear localization and nucleolar accumulation, point- and deletion-mutations were introduced and the corresponding subcellular localizations were analyzed. Data revealed that (i) K79R81, K86K87, and the C-terminal tail of MK constitute the nuclear localization determinant of MK, and (ii) the C-terminal tail is the key element controlling MK nucleolar accumulation though the N-terminal tail, K79R81, and K86K87 also contribute to this process. Taken together, our results provide the first documentation about the determinants required for MK nuclear and nucleolar localization.

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