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Confocal UV and resonance Raman microscopic imaging of pharmaceutical products.

Authors
  • Vogt, Frederick G
  • Strohmeier, Mark
Type
Published Article
Journal
Molecular Pharmaceutics
Publisher
American Chemical Society
Publication Date
Nov 04, 2013
Volume
10
Issue
11
Pages
4216–4228
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1021/mp400314s
PMID: 24050305
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

Chemical imaging using confocal Raman microscopy is a useful analytical tool in drug development because of its ability to spatially image active ingredients and excipients in dosage forms and relate their distribution to product performance. While Raman spectra are highly specific for individual components of a formulation, most Raman microscopic mapping experiments require extensive experimental time. Laser wavelengths in the near-infrared range are used to suppress fluorescence but reduce sensitivity because of the inverse quadratic dependence of Raman scattering on laser wavelength. Compact, simple ultraviolet (UV) laser designs now allow for confocal UV Raman microscopy to be performed using a versatile instrument also capable of conventional Raman microscopy and epifluorescence imaging analyses. This study presents the results of UV Raman microscopy analyses using 266 nm laser irradiation of four pharmaceutical compositions of interest, including two types of tablets containing low doses of active ingredients (in the 0.2% w/w range), an amorphous dispersion containing 1% w/w of a small molecule drug, and an enteric coated layered peptide formulation. Resonance Raman enhancements are observed for four of the active ingredients studied in these formulations. The spectroscopic properties of the materials used in this study are also assessed by diffuse reflectance UV-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and conventional bulk Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy using 1064 nm laser irradiation. Confocal UV Raman microscopy was found to offer good sensitivity and allowed for rapid microscopic mapping of drugs and excipients at low concentrations in pharmaceutical formulations.

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