In order to implement the ultraprecise measurement with large range and long working distance in confocal microscopy, confocal simultaneous phase-shifting interferometry (C-SPSI) has been presented. Four channel interference signals, with π/2 phase shift between each other, are detected simultaneously in C-SPSI. The actual surface height is then calculated by combining the optical sectioning with the phase unwrapping in the main cycle of the interference phase response, and the main cycle is determined using the bipolar property of differential confocal microscopy. Experimental results showed that 1 nm of axial depth resolution was achieved for either low- or high-NA objective lenses. The reflectivity disturbance resistibility of C-SPSI was demonstrated by imaging a typical microcircuit specimen. C-SPSI breaks through the restriction of low NA on the axial depth resolution of confocal microscopy effectively.