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Conducting polymer-based hybrid assemblies for electrochemical sensing: a materials science perspective.

Authors
  • Janáky, Csaba1
  • Visy, Csaba
  • 1 Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Szeged, Aradi V. Sq. 1, 6720 Szeged, Hungary. , (Hungary)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
Apr 01, 2013
Volume
405
Issue
11
Pages
3489–3511
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s00216-013-6702-y
PMID: 23341002
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

In this topical review, progress achieved in amperometric sensing of different analytes over conducting polymer-based hybrid electrocatalysts is summarized. We report a variety of synthetic methods and the resulting hybrid assemblies, with the effectiveness of such strategies, for designing conjugated polymer-based hybrids as robust sensors for amperometric detection. Beyond incorporation of metal nanoparticles, metal-oxide and non-oxide semiconductors, carbon-based nanomaterials (nanotubes, graphene, and graphene oxide), and special dopant ions are also discussed. Moreover, some particularly interesting miscellaneous approaches, for example photo-amperometric sensing or use of overoxidized polymers, are also emphasized. Determination of dissolved gases (for example O2, NO, and NO2), ions (sulfite, nitrite, nitrate, chlorate, bromate, and iodate) and smaller and larger molecules (for example H2O2, ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), urea (UA), amino acids, hydrazine, NADH, serotonin, and epinephrine) is discussed. These achievements are reviewed from the materials perspective, addressing both synthetic and electrocatalytic aspects of the polymer-based modified electrodes. Beyond simple or more sophisticated mixing, a wide range of methods of preparation is presented, including chemical (one-pot polymerization, impregnation), electrochemical (co-deposition, doping type inclusion, etc.) and combined strategies. Classification of such synthetic routes is also included. However, it is important to note that we omit studies in which conducting polymers alone were used for determination of different species. Furthermore, because excellent reviews--cited in this work also--are available on immobilization of biomolecules (for example enzymes) for biosensing purposes, this topic, also, is excluded.

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