AbstractThis work focuses on the features of formation of artesian basins of the intermountain type. The conditions for the formation of groundwater in the Heihe intermountain artesian basin situated in the arid region of northwestern China and water resources of Tien Shan in Kyrgyzstan are considered. The variety of the hydrogeological structures of the basin segments and the features of recharge and discharge allow their division into areas by features, chemical composition, and the quality of the groundwater. The factors that affect the groundwater formation are described; the geological-hydrogeological and hydrodynamic features of intermountain artesian basins are characterized. The main types of groundwater flows and their conceptual models are presented. The chemical composition of their constituent aquifers is provided. The results make it possible to plan rational management of the studied areas.