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Conception control and HIV/STD infections.

Authors
Type
Published Article
Journal
Advances in contraceptive delivery systems : CDS
Publication Date
Volume
4
Issue
2-3
Pages
97–193
Identifiers
PMID: 12281619
Source
Medline
Keywords
  • Barrier Methods
  • Behavior
  • Biology
  • Condom
  • Contraception
  • Contraceptive Agents
  • Contraceptive Methods
  • Delivery Of Health Care
  • Diseases
  • Evaluation
  • Family Planning
  • Family Planning Programs
  • Genitalia
  • Genitalia, Male
  • Health
  • Health Services
  • Hiv Infections--Etiology
  • Hiv Infections--Prevention And Control
  • Hiv Infections--Transmission
  • Immunity
  • Immunologic Factors
  • Infections
  • Iud
  • Medicine
  • Physiology
  • Reproductive Tract Infections
  • Risk Factors
  • Semen--Analysis
  • Seminal Vesicles
  • Sex Behavior
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  • Spermicidal Contraceptive Agents
  • Treatment
  • Urogenital System
  • Viral Diseases

Abstract

The basic clinical aspects of contraception, fertility regulation, family planning, and family health are described as they relate to parameters of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), AIDS Related Complex (ARC), and sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in man. Special emphasis is placed on: the biology/pathology of HIV; microbiology/immunology of human semen; condoms/spermicides; IUDS and HIV infections; STDs; heterosexual/homosexual transmission of HIV; risk factors/cofactors and HIV; prevention of HIV; clinical manifestations and opportunistic infections; and the integration of family planning programs with STD/HIV services. Human semen contains a wide variety of cellular elements and microbiological contaminants. THe major leukocyte subpopulations in the semen include: granulocytes, monocytes/macrophages, B lymphocytes, helper and suppressor/cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and antibodies. HIV penetrates several types of cells: macrophages, antibody-producing B cells, endothelial cells of blood vessels, and non-neuronal brain cells. Sperm-specific moieties have a high potential of immunogenicity. Condoms have been recommended to HIV carriers, both to prevent sexual transmission of HIV to uninfected sexual partners and to avoid repeated contact with HIV which influences clinical outcome of AIDS. Fluctuations in sales of condoms are due to the removal of IUDs from the American market; homosexual fear of HIV infection; and the discontinuation of oral contraceptive use among older women. The FDA has authorized anti-AIDS benefits in advertising/labelling of condoms. With the use of IUDs, a local infection of susceptible cervical cells from infected semen precedes systemic spread of HIV. Multiple sex partners increase the risk of HIV/STD infections. Further complications may also involve immunopathological interactions among multiple viral infections. With copper IUDs there may be urticarial eruptions and eczematous dermatitis and such cases with exposure of subcutaneous areas of the skin are considered as cofactors for HIV infection. HIV-infected women should avoid pregnancy and be given the highest priority for family planning services.

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