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Concentrations of phthalate esters and identification of other additives in PVC children’s toys

Authors
  • Stringer, Ruth1
  • Labunska, Iryna1
  • Santillo, David1
  • Johnston, Paul1
  • Siddorn, John1
  • Stephenson, Angela1
  • 1 University of Exeter, Hatherly Laboratories, Greenpeace Research Laboratories, Department of Biological Sciences, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, EX4 4PS, UK , Exeter
Type
Published Article
Journal
Environmental Science and Pollution Research
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
Mar 01, 2000
Volume
7
Issue
1
Pages
27–36
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1065/espr199910.007
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
Yellow

Abstract

This study was intended to provide data on the composition of soft PVC toys, addressing the widest practicable range of chemical additives and including non-phthalate additives. The study also included toys from as many countries as possible, since for many, no data were available. A total of 72 toys were purchased in 17 countries. The majority (64) were PVC or had PVC sections. In almost all the soft PVC toys analysed, phthalates comprised a sizeable proportion (most frequently 10–40%) of the total weight of the toy. The predominant phthalates detected were diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Other phthalates identified in high concentrations in some toys include isomeric mixes of diisooctyl phthalate (DIOP) and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP). The estrogenic chemical nonylphenol was isolated from 13 toys, while 2 toys were found to contain the fungicide Fungitrol 11 (Folpet). 78% of PVC toys contained one or more extractable organic compounds in addition to those reported above.

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