This paper addresses the issue of the satellite image processing using GRASS GIS in the mangrove forests of the Niger River Delta, southern Nigeria. The estuary of the Niger River Delta in the Gulf of Guinea is an essential hotspot of biodiversity on the western coast of Africa. At the same time, climate issues and anthropogenic factors affect vulnerable coastal ecosystems and result in the rapid decline of mangrove habitats. This motivates monitoring of the vegetation patterns using advanced cartographic methods and data analysis. As a response to this need, this study aimed to calculate and map several vegetation indices (VI) using scripts as advanced programming methods integrated in geospatial studies. The data include four Landsat 8-9 OLI/TIRS images covering the western segment of the Niger River Delta in the Bight of Benin for 2013, 2015, 2021, and 2022. The techniques included the ’i.vi’, ’i.landsat.toar’ and other modules of the GRASS GIS. Based on the GRASS GIS ’i.vi’ module, ten VI were computed and mapped for the western segment of the Niger River Delta estuary: Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index (ARVI), Green Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index (GARI), Green Vegetation Index (GVI), Difference Vegetation Index (DVI), Perpendicular Vegetation Index (PVI), Global Environmental Monitoring Index (GEMI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Second Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI2), Infrared Percentage Vegetation Index (IPVI), and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI). The results showed variations in the vegetation patterns in mangrove habitats situated in the Niger River Delta over the last decade as well as the increase in urban areas (Onitsha, Sapele, Warri and Benin City) and settlements in the Delta State due to urbanization. The advanced techniques of the GRASS GIS of satellite image processing and analysis enabled us to identify and visualize changes in vegetation patterns. The technical excellence of the GRASS GIS in image processing and analysis was demonstrated in the scripts used in this study.