To investigate factors that may lead to false-positive or false-negative results in a computer-aided diagnostic system (S-Detect; Samsung Medison Co, Ltd, Seoul, Korea) for ultrasound (US) examinations of solid breast lesions. This prospective study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital. All patients signed and provided written informed consent before biopsy or surgery. From September 2017 to May 2018, 269 consecutive women with 338 solid breast lesions were included. All lesions were examined with US and S-Detect before biopsy or surgical excision. The final US assessments made by radiologists and S-Detect were matched to the pathologic results. Patient and lesion factors in the "true" and "false" S-Detect groups were compared, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify the factors associated with false S-Detect results. The mean age of the patients ± SD was 42.6 ± 12.9 years (range, 18-77 years). Of the 338 lesions, 209 (61.8%) were benign, and 129 (38.2%) were malignant. Larger lesions, the presence of lesion calcifications detected by B-mode US, and grades of 2 and 3 according to Adler et al (Ultrasound Med Biol 1990; 16:553-559) were significantly associated with false-positive S-Detect results (odds ratio [OR], 1.071; P = .006; OR, 5.851; P = .001; OR, 1.726; P = .009, respectively). Smaller lesions and the absence of calcifications detected by B-mode US in malignant solid breast lesions were significantly associated with false-negative S-Detect results (OR, 1.141; P = .015; OR, 7.434; P = .016). Larger benign lesions, the presence of lesion calcifications, and high degrees of vascularity are likely to show false-positive S-Detect results. Smaller malignant lesions and the absence of calcifications are likely to show false-negative S-Detect results. © 2019 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.