The aim of this study was to investigate the position and course of the mandibular canal through the mandibular ramus using computed tomographic (CT) imaging and to relate the findings to performing sagittal split ramus osteotomies. The mandibles of 35 patients with skeletal Class III prognathism with symmetry (12 males and 23 females) were observed on transaxial computed tomograms acquired with a slice thickness of 2 mm. The position and course of the mandibular canal from the mandibular foramen to the mandibular body at the level of the second molar were measured at four specific locations in the same plane. Among the 70 rami examined, lack of a bone marrow space on the buccal side, including a fusion type anatomy with no buccal side cortical bone of the mandibular canal, were observed at the CT location between the mandibular foramen and mandibular angle. Our results suggest that special care must be taken when sagittal splitting is performed, and the safest location for the buccal corticotomy is anterior to the mandibular angle.