BackgroundWe developed the Brief Scale for Psychiatric Problems in Orthopaedic Patients (BS-POP, physician and patient versions) and have previously shown that the BS-POP is reliable and has construct validity, criterion validity, and reproducibility. The present study aimed to proactively verify the responsiveness of the BS-POP with regard to chronic low back pain (LBP) patients.MethodsThe study subjects included 193 chronic LBP patients (81 males, 112 females; mean age 62 years) who had suffered from persistent LBP for ≥3 months. During the first test (before the treatment), the BS-POP, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), the Profile of Mood States (POMS), the 36-item Short-form Health Survey version 2 (SF-36 v2), and the Roland–Morris Disability Questionnaire (RDQ) were conducted. The BS-POP, POMS, SF-36 v2, and RDQ for the third test were conducted (4–6 weeks after treatment) on all patients who had participated in the first test to determine the responsiveness of the BS-POP. The responsiveness of the BS-POP was investigated statistically.ResultsThe total crude BS-POP scores were significantly lower for both physician and patient versions in the third test than in the first test. Moreover, the crude RDQ scores and SF-36 v2 items, physical functioning (PF), bodily pain (BP), MH, VT, and GH, and POMS items, tension–anxiety (T–A), D, F, and confusion (C) improved significantly, confirming responsiveness to treatment.DiscussionThe present findings indicate that the BS-POP possesses sufficient responsiveness from a computational psychology perspective. The BS-POP constitutes a tool enabling orthopaedists to easily identify psychiatric problems in orthopaedic patients.