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Advancement on Lead-Free Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskite Solar Cells: A Review.

Authors
  • Sani, Faruk1
  • Shafie, Suhaidi2, 3
  • Lim, Hong Ngee4, 5
  • Musa, Abubakar Ohinoyi6
  • 1 Department of Physics, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, P.M.B. 2346, Sokoto, Nigeria. [email protected] , (Niger)
  • 2 Functional Devices Laboratories, Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia. [email protected] , (Malaysia)
  • 3 Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia. [email protected] , (Malaysia)
  • 4 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia. [email protected] , (Malaysia)
  • 5 Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia. [email protected] , (Malaysia)
  • 6 Department of Physics, Bayero University, Gwarzo Road, 700241 Kano, Nigeria. [email protected] , (Niger)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Materials
Publisher
MDPI AG
Publication Date
Jun 14, 2018
Volume
11
Issue
6
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/ma11061008
PMID: 29899206
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Remarkable attention has been committed to the recently discovered cost effective and solution processable lead-free organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells. Recent studies have reported that, within five years, the reported efficiency has reached 9.0%, which makes them an extremely promising and fast developing candidate to compete with conventional lead-based perovskite solar cells. The major challenge associated with the conventional perovskite solar cells is the toxic nature of lead (Pb) used in the active layer of perovskite material. If lead continues to be used in fabricating solar cells, negative health impacts will result in the environment due to the toxicity of lead. Alternatively, lead free perovskite solar cells could give a safe way by substituting low-cost, abundant and non toxic material. This review focuses on formability of lead-free organic-inorganic halide perovskite, alternative metal cations candidates to replace lead (Pb), and possible substitutions of organic cations, as well as halide anions in the lead-free organic-inorganic halide perovskite architecture. Furthermore, the review gives highlights on the impact of organic cations, metal cations and inorganic anions on stability and the overall performance of lead free perovskite solar cells.

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