The management of hand-foot-and-mouth disease(HFMD) epidemic is difficult due to the frequent emergence of non-EV71 and non-CVA16 enteroviruses and some cases testing negative for HFMD-associated causative agents. To clarify the virus spectrum of mild and severe HFMD, a comprehensive virome analysis of 238 samples was performed using next-generation sequencing (NGS). The data revealed total thirteen mammalian- and plant virus families and diverse viral populations including enteroviruses, common respiratory viruses, diarrhea-related viruses, plant viruses and anelloviruses. A total of 18 viruses from 7 virus families were identified in severe cases, versus 37 viruses from 12 virus families in mild cases. Moreover, complicated mixed-infections of enteroviruses with common respiratory viruses were mainly found in severe cases(P = 0.013), while diarrhea related viruses were mainly found in mild cases(P < 0.001). This study provides the preliminary understanding of viromes both in mild and severe cases, which may benefit the detection of etiologic agents and prevention of HFMD.