A comprehensive software system has been developed to allow 3-dimensional planning of radiation therapy treatments using the extensive anatomical information made available by imaging modalities such as CT and MR. Biological structures of interest and tumor volumes are defined by outlines drawn on a sequence of CT slices. Beam set-ups may then be determined in three dimensions by displaying the structure contours in a beam's eye view, or in two dimensions using a single CT cut. Each beam defined may be shaped by the specification of block aperture contours, and its intensity may be modified with the use of planar compensators. 3D dose calculation algorithms are discussed. To evaluate the calculation results, dose volume histograms are provided, as well as various types of displays in two and three dimensions, including dose on arbitrarily oriented planes, dose on the surface of anatomical objects, and isodose surfaces. Computer generated beam films are also available as an aid in patient set-up verification. These tools, and others, provide the basis for a comprehensive 3D system that can be used throughout the treatment planning process.