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Comprehensive Protocol for the Identification and Characterization of New Psychoactive Substances in the Service of Law Enforcement Agencies

Authors
  • Bulska, Ewa1
  • Bachliński, Robert2
  • Cyrański, Michał K.1
  • Michalska-Kacymirow, Magdalena1
  • Kośnik, Wioletta1
  • Małecki, Paweł1
  • Grela, Karol1
  • Dobrowolski, Michał A.1
  • 1 Faculty of Chemistry, Biological and Chemical Research Center, University of Warsaw, Warsaw , (Poland)
  • 2 Central Forensic Laboratory of the Police, Warsaw , (Poland)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Frontiers in Chemistry
Publisher
Frontiers Media S.A.
Publication Date
Sep 25, 2020
Volume
8
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3389/fchem.2020.00693
PMID: 33102427
PMCID: PMC7546804
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
License
Unknown

Abstract

A non-routine, comprehensive protocol for characterization of emerging new psychoactive substances (NPS) including chemical structures, impurities, as well as crystal structures, has been developed to facilitate the work of law enforcement agencies. A set of NPS has been synthesized, identified, and characterized by various analytical methods in order to be used as certified reference standards (CRMs). Seven selected compounds (5-IT, NM-2201, MT-45, AB-CHMINACA, UR-144, 5F-PB-22, and 4-CMC) were synthesized on the laboratory scale, then the process was upscaled to semi-technical. All products were analyzed by electrospray Q/TOF-MS/MS for molecular structure identification. The presence of by-products, as well as metal impurities, arising from the performed syntheses, were characterized by reversed phase liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with DAD and Q/TOF-MS detection and inductively-coupled plasma with quadrupole mass spectrometer (ICP-QMS), respectively. Additionally, the crystal structures of UR-144, NM-2201, 5F-PB-22, and 4-CMC have been determined by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction.

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