Skeletal muscle long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) were reported to be involved in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, little is known about the mechanism of skeletal muscle lncRNAs on hyperglycemia of diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats at the age of 3 and 4 weeks. To elucidate this, we used RNA-sequencing to profile the skeletal muscle transcriptomes including lncRNAs and mRNAs, in diabetic GK and control Wistar rats at the age of 3 and 4 weeks. In total, there were 438 differentially expressed mRNAs (DEGs) and 401 differentially expressed lncRNAs (DELs) in skeletal muscle of 3-week-old GK rats compared with age-matched Wistar rats, and 1000 DEGs and 726 DELs between GK rats and Wistar rats at 4 weeks of age. The protein-protein interaction analysis of overlapping DEGs between 3 and 4 weeks, the correlation analysis of DELs and DEGs, as well as the prediction of target DEGs of DELs showed that these DEGs (Pdk4, Stc2, Il15, Fbxw7 and Ucp3) might play key roles in hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, and increased fatty acid oxidation. Considering the corresponding co-expressed DELs with high correlation coefficients or targeted DELs of these DEGs, our study indicated that these dysregulated lncRNA-mRNA pairs (NONRATG017315.2-Pdk4, NONRATG003318.2-Stc2, NONRATG011882.2-Il15, NONRATG013497.2-Fbxw7, MSTRG.1662-Ucp3) might be related to above biological processes in GK rats at the age of 3 and 4 weeks. Our study could provide more comprehensive knowledge of mRNAs and lncRNAs in skeletal muscle of GK rats at 3 and 4 weeks of age. And our study may provide deeper understanding of the underlying mechanism in T2D of GK rats at the age of 3 and 4 weeks. ©2020 Zhang et al.