The number and caliber of myelinated and non-myelinated fibers of entire and sensory vagal nerves of cats were studied by means of light and electron miscroscopy. The results obtained with electron microscopy show that the non-myelinated component is particularly rich (about 40,000 elements at the cervical level), with clearly higher numbers of fibers than demonstrated thus far with light microscopy. The ratio of myelinated to non-myelinated fibers is on the average 1:4 for the total vagi and only 1:8 for the sensory vaga component. The comparison of the nerve above and below the level of the nodose ganglion shows that (1) mean fiber diameter is usually greater at the infranodose than at the supranodose level, and (2) some myelinated fibers of small diameter occurring below the nodose ganglion become non-myelinated above it. Additionally, the number of non-myelinated fibers per Schwann cell is greater at the supranodose than at the infranodose level; this speaks in favor of a reorganization of the C-fiber population from one level to the other.