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Comportamento do carbono orgânico e de atributos químicos, físicos e microbiológicos de um solo arenoso em área de conversão pastagem - Eucalipto

  • Sena, Karla Nascimento
Publication Date
Mar 03, 2016
Repositório Institucional UNESP
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The soil is, in nowadays, considered the most important carbon pool and effective carbon stabilizer. On the other hand, the agriculture is considered the second largest carbon emitting, after fossil fuels. This organic carbon (CO) introduced into the soil, mainly via organic matter, has an important role in soil formation and properties, besides detached importance for sandy soil. This study aimed to verify changes in the organic carbon, amounts and storage, the influence of this on some soil physical properties, on areas of conversion pasture-eucalyptus (EU2), pasture-eucalyptus reforestation (EU15) compared to pasture (PAST) and natural vegetation (CC), in the Mato Grosso do Sul State, eastern region. The soil was sampled with four replications, in the depths of 0.0-0.05, 0.05-0.10 and 0.10 - 0.30 m. Due to the proposed objective it was carried out soil fertility analysis ( P, MO, pH, K, Ca, Mg, H+Al, Al, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn), total organic carbon, made if the calculation of carbon stock (EstC), it was determined aggregate stability, bulk density (BD), macro and microporosity, total porosity (TP), water infiltration rate in the soil, accumulated water infiltration , mechanical resistance soil penetration (RP) , microbial biomass carbon (MBC), basal respiration (C-CO2) and metabolic quotient (qCO2). The experimental design was a randomized block consisting of 4 blocks, with nine replicates per block, totaling 36 sampling points per management system to be assessed in this case a degraded pasture area (PAST), a grassland conversion of degraded area - eucalipto, which occurred two years before (EU2), a degraded pasture conversion, reforestation area with eucalyptus (EU15), and an area under kept closed (CC) considered as control. At the end it was found that the conversion of DC in commercial farming areas accelerates CO loss process and the physical quality of the soil, with the pasture responsible for the higher degradation, because it presents the soil resistance behavior of the penetration, for example, restrictions on the development of vegetation. These soils, in sandy texture, analysis of aggregate stability needs to be accompanied by a morphological evaluation, as this type of soil can provide sand grains isolated with macroaggregates size. After 15 years of introduction of eucalyptus in pasture area, they observe signs of recovery of some soil physical properties, such as reduction in density and increased porosity, which does not occur to PAST and EU2. The CC had higher OM content, with significant differences from Management Systems (MS) evaluation, only the depth of 0,00-0,05m , reinforcing the importance of the deposition of plant material on the surface . The soil fertility behavior among management systems and the CC, was similar to the OM, with a reduction in depth, confirming the relationship of organic matter with fertility, its importance in supplying the soil and showed that the sandy texture, in fact, has reduced capacity for cation retention, consequently has a high potential for leaching. The carbon stock, as expected, decreased in depth in all systems studied. However CO found in depth from 0,10 to 0,30 m did not influence attributed to the use soil, thereby indicating the possibility of residence of the soil for longer periods of time, into the carbon sequestration field is indeed this period extend for tens or hundreds of years. The land use systems have reduced both the CO and the EctC indicating soil degradation when compared to CC. The CBM, released C-CO2 and qCO2 were influenced by SM. The release of C- CO2, due to the soil microbial activity points to the CC and PAST treatments as better performance of them, proving that management systems, vegetation cover, root system and cattle manure has influenced the activity of microorganisms.

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