We investigated the components of biological variation in plasma prolyl endopeptidase (PEP; EC 188.8.131.52) and dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP IV; EC 3.4..14.5) activity in healthy individuals. We took monthly blood samples from 26 healthy volunteers for determination of plasma PEP and DPP IV activity during one calendar year. The estimated CVs for PEP activity were: total (CVt) = 25.0%, interindividual (CVg) = 13.9%, and intraindividual (CVi) = 16.8%. There was a statistically significant (P < 0.0001) seasonal pattern in plasma PEP activity, with significantly higher values in the fall than in the other seasons. The peak-trough difference in the yearly variation in PEP activity, expressed as a percentage of the mean, was as high as 56.8%. The estimated CVs for DPP IV activity were: CVt = 17.1%, CVg = 14.5%, and CVi = 8.2%. DPP IV activity was significantly (P < 0.0001) higher in summer than in the other seasons but the amplitude of the yearly variation was small.