Background: During the past 15 years, polymethylmethacrylate has been used as a synthetic permanent filler for soft-tissue augmentation. Methods: This. article reports 32 cases of complications seen at Hospital das Clinicas, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, for procedures performed elsewhere. Results: The average age of the patients was 43.6 years (range, 22 to 70 years). Twenty-five patients were women. Sixteen injection procedures were performed by certified plastic surgeons, nine by dermatologists, two by urologists, and one by a nonphysician. Complications were classified into five groups according to main presentation as follows: tissue necrosis (five cases), an acute complication that can be related to technical mistakes but that can also be dependent on patient factors or caused by local infection; granuloma (10 cases), which usually presents as a subacute complication 6 to 12 months after the procedure; chronic inflammatory reactions (10 cases), which usually occur years later and can be related to a triggering event, Such as another operation or infection in the area that was injected (these reactions are immunogenic in origin and may have cyclic periods of activation and remission); chronic inflammatory reaction in the lips (six cases), which may be present with severe symptoms, especially with lymphedema, because of mobility of the lip; and infections (one case), which are rare but possible complications after filling procedures. Conclusions: Polymethylmethacrylate filler complications, despite being rare, are often permanent and difficult or even impossible to treat. Safety guidelines should be observed when considering use of polymethylmethacrylate for augmentation.