Polar ether lipids of Thermoplasma acidophilum HO-62 were purified by high-performance liquid chromatography with an evaporative light-scattering detector. Structures of purified lipids were investigated by capillary gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Three types of ether lipids were found: phospholipids, glycolipids, and phosphoglycolipids. The two phospholipids had glycerophosphate as the phosphoester moiety. The seven glycolipids had different combinations of gulose, mannose, and glucose, which formed mono- or oligosaccharides. The eight phosphoglycolipids with two polar head groups contained glycerophosphate as the phosphoester moiety and gulose alone or gulose and mannose, which formed mono- or oligosaccharides, as the sugar moiety. Although gulose is an unusual sugar in nature, several glyco- and phosphoglycolipids contained gulose as one of the sugar moieties in Thermoplasma acidophilum. All the ether lipids had isopranoid chains of C40 or C20 with zero to three cyclopentane rings. The structures of these lipids including four new glycolipids and three new phosphoglycolipids were determined, and a glycosylation process for biosynthesis of these glycolipids was suggested.