Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes constitute a multigene family of many endogenous and xenobiotic substances. The CYP1 family is of particular interest in environmental toxicology because its members are dominant in the metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and aryl amines. A new complementary DNA of the CYP1C subfamily encoding CYP1C1 was isolated from carp liver after intraperitoneal injection of beta-napthoflavone (BNF). The full-length cDNA obtained contained a 5' noncoding region of 244 bp, an open reading frame of 1572 bp coding for 524 amino acids, a stop codon, and a 3' noncoding region of 965 bp. The predicted molecular weight of the protein was approximately 59.3 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of this cDNA was 82.1% and 80.2% similar to Japanese eel and scup CYP1C1 sequences, respectively, while it exhibited a similarity of 74.9% with the scup CYP1C2 sequence. The deduced amino acid sequence of carp CYP1C1 showed similarities with those of the reported CYP1B1s of teleosts and mammals of 48.4, 48.8, 48.2, 48.6, 45.3, and 45.5% for carp CYP1B1, carp CYP1B2, plaice CYP1B1, and human, rat, and mouse CYP1B1, respectively. The phylogenetic tree constructed using fish and mammalian CYP1 sequences suggested a closer relationship of the CYP1C subfamily to CYP1B than to CYP1A. The tree showed the possibility of the existence of CYP1C subfamily genes in mammalian species. Northern blot analysis for the liver, intestine, gills, and kidney showed no detectable induced expression but constitutive expression in the gill organs.