A direct competitive impedimetric immunoassay for chlorpyrifos (CPF) was developed that is based on the specific affinity of immunoassay and the enzymatic biocatalytic precipitation amplification strategy. The CPF antibody (anti-CPF) was anchored onto an electro-deposited nanogold modified glassy carbon electrode surface by adsorption of the Au-NH2 bond and Au-SH bond. This improved the electrode reactivity and the loading amount of anti-CPF. Abundant horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and bovine serum albumin-CPF (BSA-CPF) were anchored onto spherical gold nanoparticles (AuNPs, 16 ± 2 nm) to form HRP-AuNP-BSA-CPF (analyte competitor). CPF determination was achieved when the competitive immunoassay occurred between CPF and analyte competitor with anti-CPF. In the presence of H2O2 and 4-chloro-1-naphthol, an enzyme-mediated biocatalytic precipitation process was triggered and produced an insoluble 4-chloro-1(4H)-naphthalenone. This insoluble substance increased the Faradaic impedance of the base electrode. The impedimetric signal was determined at the formal potential of 220 mV and alternating voltage of 10 mV. This signal decreased with increasing concentration of CPF over a linear range of 1.0 × 10−3 ng mL−1~10 ng mL−1 with a detection limit of 0.070 pg mL−1. The immunoassay has been tested for determination of chlorpyrifos in complex matrices such as artificially spiked vegetables with recoveries in the range 85 to 110%. The relative standard deviations were less than 7.5%. Graphical abstractSchematic representation of electrochemical impedimetric immunoassay for chlorpyrifos determination before enzymatic biocatalytic precipitation (BCP, red line) process and after BCP process (blue line).