The aim of this study was to investigate the adequacy of bronchial sleeve lobectomy by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery in perioperative outcomes and its oncological efficacy by comparing with thoracotomy in a balanced population. A total of 363 patients who received bronchial sleeve lobectomy for non-small cell lung cancer from January 2013 to December 2017 were included and placed in the thoracotomy (n = 251) and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (n = 112) groups. Statistical analyses were performed to compare patients' demographics, perioperative outcomes, and survival between the 2 groups. A total of 116 thoracotomy cases were matched with 72 video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery cases by propensity score. Compared with thoracotomy, patients in the video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery group after matching had less intraoperative blood loss (P < .01) and length of postoperative hospital stay (P < .01), duration of chest tube drainage (P < .01), and intensive care unit stay (P = .03) despite comparable operative time, complication rate, and 30- to 90-day mortality rate. The overall survival and recurrence-free survival were similar in patients who received sleeve lobectomy by thoracotomy and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (log-rank, P = .24 and .20, respectively) at 3 years. Although advanced TNM stage was independently associated with worse overall survival and recurrence-free survival in multivariable analysis, older age was only predictive for worse overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.07; P = .02). Body mass index was also found be a predictive factor (overall survival: hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.86-0.99, P = .03; recurrence-free survival: hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.87-0.99, P = .02). With appropriate patient selection and continued experience, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery appears to be safe in the short-term perioperative period and does not appear to comprise oncologic outcomes in performing sleeve lobectomy. Copyright © 2020 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.