The effect of different cadmium concentrations (6–120 µM) on Hill reaction activity (HRA) of isolated chloroplasts, contents of chlorophylls (Chls) and carotenoids (Cars), and Cd uptake and accumulation in plant organs of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. cv. Vitasso) and mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] were determined. The Cd stress inhibited photochemical activity of isolated chloroplasts of both species and in both tested developmental stages. On the basis of EC50 values, the mung bean showed a higher sensitivity to Cd treatment than Indian mustard. The higher sensitivity of both species was determined in the earlier than in the older developmental stage. The leaves of Cd-treated plants possessed lower contents of Chls and Cars in both species and the negative effect increased with Cd concentration. A difference between species was also found in Cd uptake and accumulation. In both species, Cd was accumulated more in roots than in shoots, with higher accumulation in Indian mustard than in mung bean.