Introduction: Objective Structured Practical Examination (OSPE) is a comprehensive tool for assessment. We wanted to improve our assessment methods and make it a more competence-based evaluation. Thus this study was designed to compare the effectiveness of Objective Structured Practical Examination with that of Conventional Practical Examination. Methods: This interventional study was carried out in Department of Microbiology atCIMSH, Lucknow over six months from October 2019 till March 2020. One hundredsecond year MBBS students were enrolled. The students were divided into two groups offifty for the conventional examination group (controls) and the OSPE group.On the first day, the cases appeared for OSPE while the controls for conventional examination.On the second day, the groups were crossed over. The students appearing for OSPEwere assessed by their scores at different stations. Feedback forms with a prestructured questionnaire were given to the students and the examiners after OSPE on both days to record their perceptions. Finally, the students’ scores were tabulated and comparedstatistically. Microsoft Excel and SPSS were used for data analysis. The data was presented as percentages, mean and standard deviation. Student t test was used and the significance was checked, using p value <0.05. Results: Overall in OSPE, the students scored higher and the result was statisticallysignificant. The proportion of students in higher marks range was more for OSPE thanthat for the conventional method. The difference was statistically significant (p<0.001).Feedback taken from examiners as well as from the students in the form of astructured questionnaire to analyze their perceptions was very encouraging. Conclusions: OSPE is a comprehensive assessment modality for practical evaluationof MBBS students. OSPE proved to be an effective tool that improved the students’scores in microbiology.