This study aimed at comparing a real-time PCR assay and a PCR-ELISA assay of both serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in patients with hematological malignancies. Using a nested case-control design, 163 patients at risk were prospectively monitored and PCR assays were performed on frozen aliquots of 459 sera which were prospectively sampled twice weekly and 42 BAL specimens sampled from 43 probable and one proven IA cases and 47 matched controls. The data from three patients classified as possible IA were excluded from the nested case-control study. The sensitivity of real-time PCR and PCR-ELISA assays in serum was 73% and 86%, respectively and specificity was 100% for both. In BAL, sensitivity was 64% for real-time PCR, 71% for PCR-ELISA and 86% for Galactomannan antigen (GMA) assays with specificities of 96%, 96%, and 93%, respectively. While slightly less sensitive, the real time-PCR assay was highly specific and considerably faster and more workable than PCR-ELISA. Combining real-time PCR and GMA detection for both serum and BAL samples enhances routine laboratory IA diagnosis.