Lymph node cells from mice primed with peptides from the allergens Der p I and Der p II (the group I and II allergens of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) were unable to recall responses to the protein antigen when cultured in vitro despite being able to mount large responses to the peptides. The T cells could however recall responses to the protein when spleen-adherent cells were added into culture. Treating the spleen accessory cells with the monoclonal antibody (mAb) 33D1 and complement largely abrogated the protein response of peptide-primed T cells which indicates that dendritic cells were mainly responsible for the antigen-presenting function. If mice were primed with two injections of peptide the lymph node cells obtained could respond to both protein and peptides in vitro without the need for exogenous accessory cells. Using either negative depletion with the J11D mAb or positive purification, it was found that the presentation of protein antigen to lymph node T cells primed with either protein or peptide was limited to antigen-specific B cells. Peptide antigens could however be presented by both B and non-B populations. In one case the peptide 105-129 from Der p II which contains a T-cell epitope could not be shown to induce T-cell responses in the lymph node unless presentation was mediated by spleen-adherent or B-specific cells. These results are important for peptide-based immunomodulation and in interpreting results obtained from lymph node cultures.