People with diabetes are at higher risk of fatal thromboembolic accidents in the cerebral and coronary circulations, especially stroke and ischemic heart disease. We have previously described the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and anticoagulant activity of orally administered camel milk in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In the present study in the same animal model, we extended these observations by comparing camel milk and the more available and widely consumed bovine milk with respect to their antidiabetic and antithrombotic actions. Rats were rendered diabetic by intraperitoneal streptozotocin (65 mg/kg), and then camel milk or bovine milk was administered orally for 8 wk. We evaluated the changes in body weight, fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance, blood coagulation profile, and platelet function. Diabetic rats developed weight loss, hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, inhibition of platelet aggregation responses to arachidonic acid and adenosine diphosphate, a marked decrease (>50%) in plasma fibrinogen levels, and short activated partial thromboplastin time. Treatment with camel milk or bovine milk reversed these abnormalities, resulting in weight gain, decreased blood glucose levels, and improved glucose tolerance. Despite the more remarkable antidiabetic action of camel milk, treatment with bovine milk was more effective in correcting plasma fibrinogen levels and restoring inhibited platelet aggregation responses. Long-term administration of camel milk or bovine milk counteracted streptozotocin-induced metabolic manifestations in rats, maintained platelet function, and abolished coagulopathy-associated fibrinogen consumption. Notably, the antidiabetic effect of camel milk was more pronounced than that of bovine milk, but bovine milk exhibited more potent anticoagulant activity than camel milk. These findings should encourage further clinical trials to assess the efficiency of camel milk and bovine milk or their derived peptides as food supplements or potential nonpharmacological therapies for dysglycemia and the vascular complications of diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2020 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.