Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) for diabetic macular edema (DME) between eyes with and without previous vitrectomy. Procedures: We prospectively assessed the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central macular thickness (CMT) after IVR for 6 months. Results: There were no significant differences in the baseline BCVA and CMT between both groups. In the nonvitrectomized group (n = 15), the mean changes of BCVA and CMT from baseline to month 6 were significant (p < 0.01). In the vitrectomized group (n = 10), the improvement appeared to be slower, and the mean BCVA improvement was not significant (p = 0.5), although the mean CMT decrease was significant (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the mean changes of BCVA and CMT between both groups at 6 months. Conclusions: The difference in the effectiveness of IVR between both groups was not significant. IVR can be a treatment option even for vitrectomized DME eyes.