The expected pain before insertion and immediate and 3 minutes pain response following IUD insertion was evaluated in 38 nulliparous women undergoing a 1st IUD removal. Expected pain was significantly greater than immediate pain and both were significantly greater than 3 minute pain. Immediate pain after IUD removal was positively related to expected pain, but the relationship was not strong enough to be clinically useful. IUD removal was highly significantly related to cervical resistance, and this relationship was made very much greater by the use of expected pain as a clinical parameter. IUD removal pain is probably related to IUD retention forces, and this relationship should be investigated.